As Moore puts it in his journal article:

Johnson, W., Turkheimer, E., Gottesman, I.I., & Bouchard, T.J., Jr. A currently active area of research is the study of epigenetics, and how the many interacting genes that make up any trait are differentially activated depending on the environment. Nature and nurture are inextricably intertwined, and it’s time for science to figure out how.

The heritability of a trait can vary from 0.00 to 1.00, depending on the environments from which research participants are sampled. Nonetheless, it is quite obvious that genetic factors play a role in determining the number of fingers we have on each of our hands!

Instead, the crucial environmental factors might remain unmeasured, and consequently, variability of those factors across the new range of environments could easily be very different than the variability of those factors across the environments sampled in the original study.

Of course, we could just aim to measure all of the environmental factors that might affect the development of a trait. Therefore, gene-environment interactions are understood to drive the development of all of our characteristics. The rich tend to get rich, and the poorer tend to get poorer. Parents matter to the extent that they support the expression of genes.

Heritability Depends Entirely On Context

Even so, the findings from twin studies should not be understated; it counters many a prevailing belief that we are born into this world as blank slates, completely at the mercy of the external environment.

The fact that both our genes and our environment contribute to who we are and depend on each other is actually quite a good thing! Give too much control to our environment or our genes, and we lose free will. This cycle continues to magnify observed ability differences in basketball between those who keep getting opportunities to increase their skills and those who didn’t get picked that first time. But does this mean that the variable “has a family” doesn’t matter in determining whether or not a person develops the ability to speak a language? Of course not! That’s like saying that water has no influence on a fish’s development because all fish live in water. Imagine if you were born slightly taller than others (maybe you don’t have to imagine this!). Because adoption and twin studies that seek to account for trait variation in terms of genetic and environmental variation are always correlational, they reveal nothing about the causes of the appearance of the traits.

Deary, I.J., Penke, L., & Johnson, W. This would give you more experience in basketball, which increase the chances you’d get picked first for another team. There is reason to believe that under more dire circumstances, the heritability of IQ would be significantly lower than that reported by Bouchard. After all, if everyone were raised in an identical environment, variations in their psychological characteristics couldn’t possibly be accounted for by anything other than variations in their genes (since there would be no variations in their developmental environments); the more variation in environments that twins in twin studies are exposed to, the lower the heritabilities we should expect to find.

Heritability Is Not The Same As Heredity

Heritability does not tell us how likely it is that people’s characteristics will be inherited by their children. But it is not at all obvious prior to developmental analysis which environmental factors might make important contributions to the development of specific traits, so that approach would leave us measuring a seriously unwieldy number of variables.

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None of the twins in Bouchard’s study were reared in real poverty, were raised by illiterate parents, or were mentally retarded. Consequently, in this study, the heritability of IQ was reported to be close to zero! Among the richest, however, the heritability of IQ approached what Bouchard found: Variations in the genes accounted for most of the differences in IQ scores, and the shared environment accounted for very little of the variance. (2003) The Dependent Gene: The Fallacy of “Nature vs. The way we work gives us choice.

Let’s be clear: Twin studies have received much criticism. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of twins reared apart. (1990). and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota published a striking finding: About 70 percent of the variance in IQ found in their particular sample of identical twins was found to be associated with genetic variation.

Environmental factors influence the development of highly heritable traits just as much as they influence the development of non-heritable traits (i.e. (2010). Genes vary within any group of people (even among the inhabitants of middle-class in Western society), and this variation contributes to variations in these people’s behaviors. The studies say nothing about how they matter, or which genes matter, but they show quite convincingly that they indeed do matter. Moore, to list eight facts about genes, twin studies, and the heritability statistic that may come as a surprise to many people — even biologists!

Does Heritability Have Any Practicality?

In 1990, Thomas J. (2009). Hence, such studies are unable to generate satisfying understandings of the factors and processes that contribute to the development of intelligence.

Because heritability is a population statistic, it has nothing to say about the individual. Moore has argued that even this is not significant when we realize that the magnitude of any heritability statistic reflects the extent of variation in unidentified non-genetic factors that contribute to the development of the trait in question.

In fact, the least heritable features of human nature may be those that appear to be the most genetically determined! Consider the fact that having 5 fingers on each of our hands is not a particularly heritable characteristic (because most finger number variations in humans are attributable not to genetic variation, but to variations in experiences, such as accidents). Furthermore, identical twins reared apart were eerily similar to identical twins reared together on various measures of personality, occupational and leisure-time interests, and social attitudes.

Heritability Says Nothing About Whether Intelligence Is More Determined By Genes Or The Environment

It turns out that parenting matters, just in a way different than originally assumed. However, David S. The Flynn effect should be a reminder of just how much the environment matters, even after completely controlling for genes (by looking at IQ changes across generations).

Genes, By Themselves, Can’t Determine Anything

Some of the most well-known behavioral geneticists, including Thomas Bouchard, Jr., recognize that it’s time to move beyond heritability estimates. Bouchard, Jr. It makes no sense to ask whether a particular individual’s intelligence has been more determined by nature or by nurture. Just because a variable doesn’t vary doesn’t mean it has no causal impact on a particular outcome.

Even if a population of individuals were to develop in a range of environments believed to be the same as that in which a particular study was conducted, the results of that study would not allow us to predict developmental outcomes in the new range of environments because the environmental factors that the researchers originally focused on — and controlled for — might not be the relevant environmental factors at all.

In reality, all biological and psychological characteristics are constructed during development, when genes interact with local environmental factors that can be influenced by the broader environment. Somehow, this finding translates to the media as “parenting doesn’t matter.” This couldn’t be farther from the truth.

Therefore, when it comes to understanding the development of a trait in a particular person, nature can never be separated from nurture. Genes are the mechanisms of experience.

Twin Studies Do Not Reveal The Causes Of Intellectual Development

Twin studies partition the variance in nature and the variance in nurture. Even though the proliferation of advanced statistical techniques (such as structural equation modeling) and the implementation of additional controls have allayed some of the concerns, they haven’t allayed all of the them.

At the very least, heritability tells us how much of the variation in IQ can be accounted for by variation in genetic factors when development occurs in an exquisitely specific range of environments. Let’s imagine that a study of alcoholism in the United States finds that the vast majority of the variation in people’s tendencies to drink to excess can be accounted for by variation in their genes. To put things in perspective, I teamed up with the well-known developmental psychologist at Pitzer College, David S. The causal route from genes to behavior is often very complex!

Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., Waldron, M., Onofio, B, & Gottesman, I.I. Genes could “account for” 100 percent of the variability in a trait in a particular twin study, but this does not mean that environmental factors are therefore unimportant in the development of the trait; parents still matter and will always matter.

Heritability Doesn’t Necessarily Have To Do With Biology

We hope these eight facts have cleared up some misunderstandings. Genes matter to the extent that they support parenting, because like any other behavior, parenting behaviors are influenced by the genes. Psychological Science, 14, 623-628.

Moore, D.S.. This study points to the fact that estimates of heritability depend on the sample that is studied, and the environment of that sample.

It’s important to keep in mind that the route from genotype (genetic makeup) to phenotype (observed behavior) is hardly ever clear-cut. Beyond heritability: Twin studies in behavioral research. Likewise, as can be seen from the example below, genetic factors influence the development of non-heritable traits just as much as they influence the development of highly heritable traits.

Adoption studies and twin studies do not entail the purposeful manipulation of either specific genes or specific environmental factors. Because we know that genes play some role in the development of any trait, the precise heritability estimate doesn’t matter in a practical sense.

The Actual Heritability Value Simply Does Not Matter

Unfortunately, findings from twin studies are often misunderstood, misinterpreted and blown out of proportion — not just by the media, but even by serious scientists who get their work published.

Because we cannot assess the variability (across our testing environments) of all the yet-to-be-identified non-genetic factors that influence IQ, Moore argues that estimates of the heritability of IQ are effectively uninterpretable and unable to be applied in any appropriate way. Because our psychological characteristics reflect the physical structures of our brains and because our genes contribute to those physical structures, there are unlikely to be any psychological characteristics that are completely unaffected by our DNA. The Flynn effect — the dramatic rise in IQ witnessed in the 20th century — is a good example of that. The neuroscience of human intelligence differences. We often talk as if we “inherit” full-blown traits from our parents, like eye colors, nose shapes and shyness. (2003). Nature and nurture are complementary, not at odds.

Because the development of behavioral and psychological characteristics can be influenced by experiential factors in ways that are unpredictable from casual observation, we cannot hope to happen to measure — through sheer lucky guesswork — which environmental factors contribute importantly to the development of those characteristics; we first need to understand the mechanisms by which those traits develop.

[Genes] are devices for extracting information from the environment. Science writer Matt Ridley has put it this way:

This raises a deeper point: Depending on what you hold constant, you can either show a genetic contribution or an environmental contribution. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 11, 201-211.

It’s very easy to imagine how slight genetic predispositions can get magnified through the course of development by the environment. Consequently, it doesn’t matter how heritable a trait is; if development of the offspring occurs in a different environment than the parent developed in, most bets are off.

Heritability depends on the amount of variability in the environmental factors that contribute to a trait. But all that we actually inherit from our parents are our genes and our genes’ (and our) environments, factors that then construct full-blown traits during development. Nurture.” New York, NY: Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.

Turkheimer’s study should also be a reminder that just because something is heritable doesn’t mean it’s immutable. Naked DNA (or RNA) is simply not sufficient to produce psychological or biological traits.

The parenting factors that are statistically associated with differences between individuals should never be confused with the parenting factors that cause the development of a trait within an individual. Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Since every single person in twin studies checks that box — that is, they are raised in a family of some sort — this factor never varies and thus does not predict differences in ability to speak a language. If we then take a baby, newly born to a pair of alcoholic American parents, and raise it in a small village in southern India where it never encounters alcohol across its lifespan, it will not develop alcoholism. After reading these facts, it might be reasonable to ask, “Does the heritability coefficient have any practical value?”

. The problem is that our understanding of the factors that contribute to the development of human traits in general — and to IQ in particular — is currently so deficient that we typically do not know if the environmental factors important in the development of a particular trait are stable across testing situations, vary somewhat across those situations, or vary wildly across those situations.

Bouchard’s study, along with many others, has painted a consistent picture: Genes matter. You get picked first for the basketball team, whereas your smaller friends may not get picked at all. Science, 250, 223-228. Because traits that are 100 percent heritable can nonetheless be strongly influenced by environmental factors, it is not the case that a trait found to be heritable in a particular twin study will be passed from a given pair of parents to their children. As already stated, every trait develops through the interplay of genes and the environment. This allows researchers to determine whether differences in genes or differences in the environment in a particular population are associated with more of the differences in observed behavior.

Parents Matter, And Will Always Matter

In one study, Eric Turkheimer and colleagues studied 320 pairs of 7-year-old twins who were raised in extreme poverty. Among the poorest, the shared environment accounted for most of the differences in IQ (60 percent), and the genes accounted for very little. It’s possible for many traits to involve gene-environment correlations. The genes and environment eventually become correlated.

Many psychologists continue to compute heritability statistics without questioning what exactly it is that they reveal to us. Unfortunately, careful consideration of these statistics suggests that they might not be applicable in any meaningful way, and so, consequently, are uninteresting at best and misleading at worst.

Take the most essential element: a child needs to be raised in a family, almost any kind of family, to develop the ability to speak a language. The point is that both are always contributing to the development of any trait, and context matters in which accounts for more of the differences in a trait.

Bouchard, , T.J., Lykken, D.T., McGue, M., Segal, N.L., & Tellegen, A. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 217-220.

The authors of many twin studies have claimed that the environments experienced by twins (or any two siblings) do little to create differences in intelligence and personality as adults. a trait like height, which is highly heritable in most developed nations, is very affected by environmental factors, like diet). Those who repeatedly don’t get picked for the basketball team may invest in other skills, such as physics or art. The idea here is that environments set off an appetite in the genes that nudges individuals to engage in certain experiences, and the environment then responds in a reciprocal fashion that reinforces an individual’s nature. Every minute, every second, the pattern of genes being expressed in your brain changes, often in direct or indirect response to events outside the body

One major type of animal abuse is torture. One such rapidly growing concept is animal cruelty.

Animal abuse simply put is cruel unwarranted treatment of animals. Some instances show that the elephants were not treated medically for wounds inflicted during beatings and other natural causes. Countries like Sweden, Costa Rica, Austria, Finland, India, and Singapore have come forward and banned or restricted the use of animals in circuses. Elephant deaths in circuses are commonly caused due to osteoporosis. Due to the inhumane treatments, it has been proved that circus animals are dying at a higher rate than they are breeding. These governance and rules rise from general disgust over happenings and concepts all over the world. We shed a tear on the condition of animals and move on to get that latest collection of ‘fur-dress’. This general concept has now given birth to the thought of a ‘animal-free’ circuses. All this is possible only by extreme training, which may translate into extreme torture.

Some elephants have also suffered from lameness, arthritis and food abscesses.

The animals in circuses are also routinely and dangerously exposed to various diseases. There are many explanations that have been given in support of animal slaughter, but nothing justifies taking away someone’s life – even if the stakes are too high.

PETA also says that the behavior of the animals during the circus shows is not at all natural, in the sense that tigers don’t hop around and then lay down in unison, elephants don’t walk trunk to tail and female elephants don’t mount each other. It is not only the responsibility of the government and NGO’S to fight for the welfare of these creatures, but as a society, the onus is on us to make a collective effort. Elephants suffer from osteoporosis simply because they do not have wide spaces to move around. According to their reports, various prominent circuses do not practice what they preach and indulge in cruelty on a routine basis. . Such treatment generally has a single point program – to subject animals and sometimes pets to unnecessary harm and pain. The definition may be anything between comprehensive and non-existent. Tuberculosis is seen as a major disease for the elephants in circuses. Apart from these, other institutes where abuse is thought to be rampant is the entertainment industry, especially the circus and film industry. In some cases, they were not provided with basic medical first aid.

Possibly, the worst case of animal cruelty in film is the movie, ‘Cannibal Holocaust’.

Despite widespread concern and condemnation, animals are subjected to enormous torture and abuse. Though the movie waded in troubled waters ever since it was released, it was proven than at least six animals, a muskrat, a pig, a monkey, a snake, a turtle and a large spider were killed for the sake of the film. It has been said that the scene depicting the monkey had to shot twice, and therefore, two monkeys were sacrificed for movie realism.

Animal cruelty is an ambiguous term and the terminology depends from region to region, state to state and country to country. No institute or individual looks after the training sessions of the circuses. While abuse amongst individuals may either be existent in a lesser manner or go largely unnoticed and uninformed, various institutes involved in factory farming, fur farming and animal testing are accused of animal cruelty. Tight collars, whips, beatings and torture are the order of the day for the animals of the circus. Circuses have known to keep a large amount of topsoil ready, to camouflage the wounds and the blood on the elephants.

As humankind has progressed, there has been an increase in governance and rules and regulations of everyday life. In a recent report, People For Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have come out with embarrassing facts about the circus lives of animals. The circus industry is said to have rampant cruelty towards animals

There was a mindset to have the child owning the academic excellence, even if he is zero in the sports but going by the opportunities, fitness factors etc parents have realized that sport is a part of academics.

No doubt it’s fun to watch your kid participating in the sports events. There are some who merely go for the fitness factor but many top schools take it very professionally and create sportsmen who can play at the district level, state level so that if somebody has interest and is good in some sports, he can join a sport institute as his career.

College Sports for Girls: It is illegal to discriminate against women in any program of education. May not be your school, if you want your child to rule some sports. This is very important advertising factor for the school. Moreover college Sports create productive and responsible citizens, strengthening community feeling and create strong schools. Check out the information on some online ports like http://www.schoolib.com to get the information on the kind s of sports facilities provided by the schools.

. The participation of girls now is increasing rapidly, where girls are taking active part on most of the sports. In India, slowly the culture is coming where parents are giving the importance to the sports, which was lacking in the past.

The vast gaming facilities require a huge infrastructure, thus fees for these schools is generally very high. Many medium size school just have a playground, and sell it like they’ve all kinds of sports facilities. Students can opt for a sport, whereas some sports are compulsory.

We enjoy watching sports in college as pure entertainment. Skills continue to be refined during years of college and is the skill that eventually will make a success of student-athlete at work.

Revenue: College Sports bring in money to the school in N number of ways. The demand of schools providing good sports facilities is very high, and if one school is proving his superiority in the sports, of-course demand will increase as well. Schools must comply with it, providing athletic opportunities by enrolling the girl students and having a continued expansion of athletic opportunities to girls. As early years have the most impact on the child, it’s important for the parents to research for the schools who provide good quality sports. Many colleges recognize sports as part of their core values, and help student athlete balancing between sports and academic career thus maintaining the highest level of integrity and sportsmanship.

Many schools have to the lottery system for students to access to the games popular sports like football, cricket. Many schools still manage by the vast funds they receive from the alumni, giving less burden to the students.

School spirit in providing the sport: There are more and more number of schools who are giving many sports facilities to the students. Early age is best to learn integrity, collaboration, communication and good sportsmanship. Also we want our child to be a good sportsman along with a very good in academic. This includes athletics and sports also. The revenue to the students is, they can go to extra mile to discover and prove themselves in the sports.

The importance for athletes in schools: Irrespective of, female or male athlete if you play to a very successful internal team, there are multi fold facilities for athletes. It allows them to feel the benefits like the boys, and it’s literally helped level the playing field.

Many children join junior teams or community-based sports teams during his years in elementary school because their parents want them to learn the same fundamental values. Time to time there are school and college competitions at every level

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According to a recent global study a remarkable 87% of managers aspire to the corner office. You just might begin to understand why the rich, famous and enlightened love it.

Jay Scott

Carey Beth Elder

. This year is no different, the Millennials have taken American Pharoah as their own on his trip to win the Triple Crown.

John Mariani

At some point, virtually every ambitious executive asks this question. Held annually in July and August, it attracts thousands of Italians and foreign visitors.

“Here, hold the horse,” said the aging groom. Nevertheless, congratulations to American Pharoah on winning the equestrian Triple Crown.

Photographer, writer, philanthropist, retired hedge fund manager

I love to entertain and inspire others through my stories.

Let’s be honest, for most people, horse racing will always be a niche, exclusive sport. But it’s not just whether you think you deserve the top job, it’s whether your board of directors thinks you deserve it.

Co-Executive Director, Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation

My wife Liz and I knew nothing about horse racing at the time, but in our minds, we thought, why not? We soon learned that the owners had undersold the ability of the horse, he was more than “pretty good.”

Rick Steves

AOL Alpha marketing, editorial and content creator. I even saw Secretariat win the Triple Crown, the Holy Grail of horse racing.

Author of European travel guidebooks and host of travel shows on public television and public radio

Publisher of “Mariani’s Virtual Gourmet Newsletter” and award-winning author

Author of European travel guidebooks and host of travel shows on public television and public radio

Rattling around late at night in an empty Siena, I found myself curbside at the craziest horse race in the world, the Palio. For him, there is no “one” subject that he photographs; he chooses to shoot what he sees.

Hold on to your gnocchi — it’s …

Felix Francis is the son of the late Dick Francis, who was the bestselling author of more than 40 mystery novels.

CEO of 21c Museum Hotel, Hermitage Grand Gala host, passionate contemporary art collector/world traveler, avid combined driving competitor

Rick Steves

A woman steps into the spotlight. The Kentucky Derby brings the best horses …

Danny Katz

Steve Wilson

Jack Choros

Triple Crown winners, like Secretariat, Affirmed and Seattle Slew, are revered. Kentucky’s native spirit, bourbon, is proudly boosted around the region.

Edward VII once described Goodwood as “a garden party with racing tacked on,” and he wasn’t far from right (the king was a frequent guest).

Siena’s Palio is one of the most difficult and ancient bareback horse races in the world with origins dating back centuries. Hold on to your gnocchi!

Ian Spanier

Award-Winning photographer/author, in LA from NY. An eager crowd watches in awe as she proceeds to swallow roughly a foot-and-a…

If it’s springtime in America, there are few places lovelier to be than Lexington, Kentucky.

The prized derby is this weekend in Churchill Downs and hat makers everywhere are having their yearly rush. The city by that name is well worth visiting, but it is in the surrounding hillsides that you find the soul of the place, especially between April and October. We went again the following year to majestic Belmont Park and every year after that for the next 15 years to see the Belmont Stakes. Queso lover, Auburn Tiger, Southern by nature, San Francisco by nurture.

I saw my first Belmont Stakes in 1972 when Riva Ridge prevailed by seven lengths. “I’ll be right back.” And with that, he handed me the lead rope attached to the halter of Secretariat, perhaps the greatest racehorse of all time, winner of the Triple Crown in 1973.

Horse racing represents the two things I hate most: animal abuse and rich white people celebrating. If you’re open-minded however, watch the Kentucky Derby this year

Parr died Friday in Hawaii, where she lived after retirement, Noth’s publicist said on Tuesday. She came to New York to work as a weather correspondent for the local CBS affiliate, eventually becoming a news correspondent there.

Photos: Stars we’ve lost in recent years

Jeanne L. Parr worked in television news in Wisconsin and Connecticut and appeared on the game show “What’s My Line,” catching the attention of a producer for CBS in New York. She was 92.

Noth, who’s been in “Law & Order” and “The Good Wife,” said that his mother “lived fiercely with courage and love. Parr, a former television correspondent in New York and mother of actor Chris Noth, has died. She never accepted anything less than her dreams.”

She wrote a book, “The Superwives,” about the spouses of athletes, and produced documentaries.

Cramer virtually invented the idea of unconventional handicapping as a way of uncovering hidden value, and here he offers ways to use pedigree handicapping, company lines, and other contrarian methods to beat the speed handicappers at their own game.

Money Secrets at the Racetrack by Barry Meadow

Many consider this the best book ever written on money management and the mathematical aspect of value betting and exotic betting. In this book, recently republished by DRF Press, he brings together a comprehensive overview of most aspects of modern handicapping theory. The information is certainly a bit dated, but there’s still lots of good food for thought considering the book was published 25 years ago.

Handicapping Magic by Michael Pizzolla

There haven’t been a lot of additions to the body of handicapping knowledge since the glory days of the 70’s and 80’s, but former Sartin disciple Pizzolla at least contributes something new with his Balanced Speed Ratings and Fulcrum Pace. Davidowitz gives a solid treatment of virtually all aspects of handicapping from speed and pace handicapping to workouts, conditioning, trainers, pedigree, and betting strategy. A must for every horseplayer’s bookshelf.

Kinky Handicapping by Mark Cramer

Cramer is one of the most entertaining and thought-provoking handicapping writers there is, and Kinky Handicapping is his magnum opus. If you’ve ever wanted to know about feet-per-second calculations, early, late and sustained pace, decision models, track profiles and all the other tools of high-tech pace handicapping, this is the place to start.

Laughing in the Hills by Bill Barich

Barich is a terrific writer, and here he gives a wonderful account of bumming around the Northern California racing circuit in the late 1970s, marking time and getting to know the colorful denizens of the Golden Gate Fields backside.

Seabiscuit: An American Legend by Laura Hillenbrand

A book that hardly needs an introduction, given the sensation it made when published. Crist, an executive and columnist with the Daily Racing Form, has ably filled that hole with this book, which offers some solid strategies for tackling both single and multi-race exotics. Sadly, several of the books mentioned here are out of print, but they can often be found on ebay or at abebooks. Nack gives us a ring side seat for all the twists and turns leading up to his incredible Triple Crown Campaign. I particularly enjoyed Ragozin’s war stories about his experiences as a horse owner and bettor (he and his partner Len Friedman have poured millions into the parimutuel pools over the years). Crist is a pick six specialist, and his treatment of how to use multiple tickets to tackle that difficult bet is well worth the price of the book.

My $50,000 Year at the Races by Andrew Beyer

Andy Beyer always delivers a good read, and this account of his home run year of 1977 when he beat the races for 50 large while splitting his time between Gulfstream Park and the Maryland tracks is one of my favorite racing books ever. A great book to dip into when a losing streak has you looking for new ideas.

Secretariat: The Making of a Champion by William Nack

Nack is a long time Sports Illustrated writer who had unprecedented access to the great Secretariat and his connections during “Big Red’s” amazing career. This book covers speed and pace figures, Quirin Speed Points, pedigree handicapping on the grass, even trip handicapping. Beyer always interleavens his handicapping books with lots of good stories that bring out the magic of the track from the bettor’s point of view.

The Odds Must Be Crazy by Len Ragozin

Ragozin is the creator of the famous “Sheets” performance figures (which some consider a bargain at $25 a pop), and this autobiography cum handicapping tome gives a broad overview of how the numbers are created as well as how their users employ pattern matching to find live horses that may offer solid value in the mutual pools. I’ve spent countless happy hours with this book revisiting some old friends as well as learning about the greats before my time. I can’t imagine a horse racing fan who won’t enjoy paging through this book.

Betting Thoroughbreds by Steve Davidowitz

For my money this is the best general handicapping book ever written, and a great place to start for novices looking to expand their knowledge as well as more seasoned players looking to move up. There’s something about the beauty of the thoroughbred and the color of the backstretch that brings out the lyrical side of many writers. Not a great place to start for the novice, but well worth reading for more experienced players.

Speed Handicapping by Andrew Beyer

By the time this was written in 1993, speed figures had lost most of their value in the parimutuel pools, but Beyer is nothing if not a die hard figure player. Beyer on Speed gives a solid overview of how speed figures are made as well as how they might be employed for betting success. A meticulously researched account of Seabiscuit’s rags to riches story, as well as that of his owner, trainer, and jockey.

The Winning Horseplayer by Andrew Beyer

Written in 1983 it’s still an excellent introduction to trip handicapping and how to relate trips to speed figures. Meadow is a serious player and the information here is rock solid.

Stud: Adventures in Breeding by Kevin Conley

A behind-the-scenes look at the world of high-class breeding, where millions of dollars are at stake, and wealthy breeders roll the dice as they “breed the best to the best and hope for the best.” Conley gives as a look into the breeding life of the great sire Storm Cat, as well as the Godolphin breeding operation, where Dubai’s Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum spends tens of millions trying for that elusive Derby winner

Thoroughbred Handicapping State of the Art by William Quirin

Quirin was among the first to do a major computer study of American horse racing. It also requires solid money management, and that’s where Commonsense Betting comes in. In addition to an excellent chapter on money management, Mitchell teaches you how to calculate the cost of any exotic wager, make an odds line, as well as how to know when a bet is offering value on the tote board.

Champions by Daily Racing Form Staff

An awesome collection of lifetime past performance for every eclipse award winner since the 1890’s. I’ve divided this article into two sections, one focusing on handicapping books, and the other on more general interest books. A great portrait of the greatest horse of all time.. The focus here is on non-fiction books, although there’s no shortage of fictional horse racing books. Quinn gives an introduction into how figures are made, as well as their application as part of the general handicapping process. The book is more notable for its exiting narrative than its handicapping secrets, but speed figures and track bias played a large part in his success.

General Interest Horse Racing Books

The Best of Thoroughbred Handicapping by James Quirin

Quinn was the most prolific of handicapping writers in the 80’s and 90’s. Ragozin doesn’t give away the store here, but there’s still plenty of good information as well as an enjoyable read for horse racing fans.

Exotic Betting by Steven Crist

Most of the best handicapping books were written before exotic betting came to dominate the mutual pools, and this has left a big hole in the literature for horseplayers seeking the big score. MPH contains a complete overview of the classic Sartin Methodology by its best-known (and perhaps most successful) practitioner. My favorite part of the book details Beyer’s expedition into the virgin territory of Australian racing, where he attempted to use his figures to conquer the fat betting pools down under.

Horse of a Different Color by Jim Squires

A great account of what it’s like to be a small time breeder by Jim Squires, the former Chicago Tribune editor turned thoroughbred breeder who hit the big time when he bred the Kentucky Derby winner Monarchos.

The Race for the Triple Crown by Joe Drape

New York Times writer Joe Drape gives an excellent history of a year on the Derby Trail among the high class stables of New York, a world far removed from the scrape-along lifestyle at most race tracks.

Modern Pace Handicapping By Tom Brohammer

If you only read one book about pace handicapping, this should be the one. He also provides a figure method for the turf based on late speed as a deciding factor.

Commonsense Betting by Dick Mitchell

Winning at the track takes more than good handicapping. Here are my choices for the best horse racing books.

Handicapping Books

Figure Handicapping By James Quinn

As the title suggests, speed and pace figures are the focus here.

What are the best horse racing books?  Horse Racing has an excellent body of literature that surpasses most sports in its quality and variety

He named the facility ‘Churchill Downs’ which was officially incorporated in 1937. On May 11, 1892, African-American jockey Alonzo “Lonnie” Clayton, age 15 became the youngest rider to win the Derby on 11th May, 1892. Churchill Downs is the Louisville’s premier racetrack, founded by Meriwether Lewis Clark Jr. Drawing around 155,000 fans, the race is one and a quarter miles (2 km) at Churchill Downs. Regret was the first filly to win the Kentucky Derbyin 1915 whereas and in 1917, the English bred colt “Omar Khayyam” was the first foreign-bred horse to win the race.

Staged annually in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, the Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses. Aptly named “The Most Exciting Two Minutes in Sports” for its duration, the Kentucky Derby is the first leg of the Triple Crown of thoroughbred horse racing with the Preakness and Belmont to follow.

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If you’re fortunate enough to be in Louisville in the first week of May, you’re surely going to have loads of fun and excitement. The region of Kentucky has been a major center of horse breeding and racing, and traces its traditions back to the late 18th century. The Bluegrass Region has since been noted for its ability to produce superior race horses and hosting several horse races.

From 1875 to 1902, African-American jockeys won 15 out of 28 runnings of the Kentucky Derby. Elwood won the race, the first Derby starter plus winner to be owned by a woman, Laska Durnell in 1904. . The Kentucky Derby Festival includes a whirlwind of vibrant activities, ranging from fireworks show to concerts, Kentucky Derby Betting, Spelling Bee, sports, races, marathons and many add to the historic running of the Kentucky Derby. Later Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races and the public loved referring these horses as Super horses. May in Louisville features a high stakes equine race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses called the Kentucky Derby.

In order to earn huge chunk of amount, the horse owners started sending their victorious Derby horses to compete a few weeks after in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, Maryland, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. Moreover, the term Triple Crown didn’t come for about another eleven years. The Kentucky derby is also noted as ‘The Run for the Roses’ for the blanket of roses draped over the winner. All three races provided the largest purse and in 1919 Sir Barton was the first horse to win all three races. The annual event of Kentucky Derby Race also garners the attention from world-wide audiences for the following Kentucky Derby Festival. who organized the Louisville Jockey Club to raise money to build quality racing facilities outside the city. A large number of visitors flock to Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May to watch one of the most famed horse races in the world, the Kentucky Derby. The festival lasts for two weeks following the day of Kentucky Derby

These associations are the International Racquetball Tournament, the Women’s Professional Racquetball Organization and the Legends Tour. Racquetball is not televised very frequently as it is difficult to film and keep track of the ball moving at high speeds. Soon afterwards in 1969 Robert W. Joe came up with the sport at the Greenwhich YMCA in a handball court. Kendler created the IRA, The International Racquetball Association. Sobek continued promoting the sport which was easy for most to pickup since over 40,000 handball courts exist across America.

Today Racquetball has not been growing like it was in the 1970s and 1980s but the fan base stays strong with an estimated 5.6 million players.

There are currently three associations that handle professional games. Solidified the rules and created the very first official rule book.

Racquetball was originally created by a man named Joe Sobek. In 1973 Robert left the IRA and formed two other racquetball associations none of which have became as prominent as the IRA. Open championships in Memphis, Tennessee is one of the few tournaments that gets air time.

Joe named this sport, ‘Paddle Rackets’ which eventually was renamed ‘Racquetball’ by professional tennis player Bob McInerny .

In 1952 Joe founded the IPRA, The International Paddler’s Racquets Association. Finally, in 2003, the USRA changed their name for the final time to mimic other Olympic sports associations and coined themselves United States Racquetball (USAR).

. When Racquetball is televised, the U.S. Eventually the IRA became the American Amateur Racquetball Association which changed its name again in the late 1990s to the United States Racquetball Association. Sobek played both tennis as well as handball but was looking for an extremely fast paced sport that mostly anybody could easily pickup without a large learning curve for the rules

Nevada has allowed betting on sports for more than 60 years, and Delaware, Montana and Oregon have at times permitted more limited betting. The Obama administration also joined in the legal fight, opposing New Jersey.

“New Jersey’s sports wagering law conflicts with PASPA and, under our Constitution, must yield,” the court said.

The state’s appeal was led by Gov. New Jersey missed a deadline in the law that would have allowed sports betting in Atlantic City.

The appeals court said it was not judging the wisdom or desirability of allowing sports wagering.

Voters in New Jersey overwhelmingly amended the state constitution in 2011 to allow sports wagering. Bets wouldn’t have been taken on games involving New Jersey colleges or college games played in the state.

© 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. New Jersey says an estimated $500 billion is bet illegally on sporting events each year.

“Because the guy that has no money in his pocket … But as CBS News’ legal analyst Jack Ford reported on “60 Minutes Sports” in March, even if the Supreme Court had ruled in favor of New Jersey, the ruling would hardly put the mob out of business.. A trial judge ruled against the state and his ruling was upheld by a divided panel of the 3rd U.S. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. State lawmakers soon enacted a law to allow for betting at tracks and in casinos. is still going to call the local bookmaker to bet” because it requires no money, he said.

The dissenting judge said Congress exceeded its authority when it passed the federal sports betting law.

The justices did not comment in letting stand lower court rulings that struck down New Jersey’s sports betting law because it conflicts with a federal law that that allows state-sanctioned sports gambling only in Nevada and three other states.

But those actions ran up against the 1992 Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, enacted by Congress to restrict betting on sports to a few states. Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia.

Angelo Lutz, a legitimate businessman and restaurateur, told Ford that gambling will always be driven by the customer.

WASHINGTON — The Supreme Court on Monday left in place a ban on sports gambling in New Jersey, rebuffing an attempt to bring betting on professional and college sporting events to Atlantic City casinos and the state’s racetracks.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association, the major professional leagues in baseball, basketball, football and hockey sued to block the New Jersey law from taking effect, saying the betting law would harm the integrity of their games. Chris Christie and it argued that the state was trying to limit illegal sports wagering and capture some of that money for the state treasury. The Associated Press contributed to this report.

Bookmakers and organized crime members have long profited in the high-stakes world of illegal sports gambling